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By Alan Cruse

This easy-to-use consultant illuminates key ideas and phrases in semantics and pragmatics and the examine of that means because it is conveyed via language.

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The most straightforward way of relating word meanings to concepts is to say that they are the same. A GLOSSARY OF SEMANTICS AND PRAGMATICS conceptual axiology 31 see Natural Semantic Metalanguage Conceptual Metaphor Theory This is a theory of metaphor developed by Lakoff. The basic idea is that metaphor is essentially a relation between conceptual domains, whereby ways of talking about one domain (the ‘source domain’) can be applied to another domain (the ‘target domain’) by virtue of ‘correspondences’ between the two.

Equipollent opposition see under markedness essentialism (psychological) This is a theory about the nature of concepts (see also under the ‘theory’ theory). It proposes that human beings, in their use of concepts, act on the assumption that for every conceptual category there is an essence which is shared by every member of the category. Hence, there is an essence of ‘salt-hood’, an essence of ‘hammer-hood’, an essence of ‘giraffe-hood’, and so on. For many categories, the essence is ‘hidden’, in two senses: (1) it may not be directly observable; (2) it may not be known to the user.

The basic unit of description in conversational analysis is the ‘turn’ (sometimes called the ‘turn constructional unit’). This is an uninterrupted contribution of one speaker to a conversation, followed and preceded by a change of speaker unless it represents the beginning or end of the conversation. Turns are said to be ‘latched’ if there is no detectable gap between the end of one turn and the beginning of the next. They may occasionally ‘overlap’. A slight pause may signal a ‘transition-relevance place’, where the turn is offered to another participant.

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