By David F. Burg
An international historical past of Tax Rebellions is an exhaustive reference resource for over 4,300 years of riots, rebellions, protests, and struggle prompted through abusive taxation and tax accumulating platforms around the globe. all of the chronologically prepared entries specializes in a particular old occasion, studying its roots, and socio-economic context.
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Additional resources for A World History of Tax Rebellions: An Encyclopedia of Tax Rebels, Revolts, and Riots from Antiquity to the Present
Rome had returned unransomed prisoners to Carthage and forbade Italians to aid the mercenaries. But Rome also perversely took advantage of Carthage’s weakened position to seize Sardinia and to extort an added indemnity of 1200 talents from its enemy. BIBLIOGRAPHY Susan Raven, Rome in Africa, new ed. London and New York: Longman, 1984. 220 BC Rhodes/Byzantium War (Near East), war between the island nation of Rhodes and the city-state of Byzantium (now Istanbul), both earlier colonized by the Greeks, that the Rhodians initiated in response to taxes, or duties, the Byzantines imposed on ships passing through the Hellespont (Dardanelles).
Tax farming, although affording a government the advantages of predictable and definite returns, was nevertheless a system fraught with great potential for failure or corruption. Since a tax farmer might prove neglectful, the system required safeguards and penalties. In some cases bondmen were used for this purpose, but the ancient states imposed a penalty of loss of citizenship on tax gatherers who bought the tax contract but failed to deliver the requisite tax revenues. Another frequent safeguard was to contract each type of significant tax separately to different tax gatherers, so that a tax farmer became known by the name of the tax he collected.
This military commander was known as the dux. ” The peasants paid a price, of course. In the Eastern Empire the government finally approved legislation against this patronage system that entailed heavy penalties. ” De Ste. de Ste. Croix, The Class Struggle in the Ancient Greek World. : Cornell University Press, 1981. Tax Avoidance, along with the related tactic of evasion, one of the most widespread forms of tax resistance, found in virtually every society and nation. Unlike evasion, however, avoidance involves employing legal means of minimizing tax burdens by taking total advantage of deductions, shelters, exemptions, and loopholes provided by existing tax laws.