By Alasdair MacIntyre
While After Virtue first seemed in 1981, it used to be famous as an important and probably debatable critique of latest ethical philosophy. Newsweek referred to as it “a wonderful new research of ethics via one of many premiere ethical philosophers within the English-speaking world.” considering that point, the e-book has been translated into greater than fifteen overseas languages and has offered over a hundred thousand copies. Now, twenty-five years later, the collage of Notre Dame Press is happy to free up the 3rd version of After Virtue, which incorporates a new prologue “After Virtue after 1 / 4 of a Century.”
In this vintage paintings, Alasdair MacIntyre examines the historic and conceptual roots of the assumption of advantage, diagnoses the explanations for its absence in own and public lifestyles, and provides a tentative suggestion for its restoration. whereas the person chapters are wide-ranging, as soon as pieced jointly they include a penetrating and targeted argument concerning the cost of modernity. within the 3rd version prologue, MacIntyre revisits the important theses of the ebook and concludes that even supposing he has discovered greatly and has supplemented and subtle his theses and arguments in different works, he has “as but came upon no explanation for forsaking the key contentions” of this booklet. whereas he acknowledges that his belief of people as virtuous or vicious wanted not just a metaphysical but additionally a organic grounding, eventually he continues to be “committed to the thesis that it is just from the point of view of a truly diverse culture, one whose ideals and presuppositions have been articulated of their classical shape through Aristotle, that we will comprehend either the genesis and the drawback of ethical modernity.”
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Additional resources for After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory (3rd Edition)
Compare Elizabeth Anderson’s (1999) relational theory of equality. Copyright © 2009 The President and Fellows of Harvard College The Main Ideas II 37 satisfying philosophical rationale can be provided for agent-relative restrictions (“deontological constraints”) (Nagel 1986; Schefﬂer 1982). 17 And if it is bad, then it is equally bad regardless of the perpetrator. So if, for example, an agent could do something that would amount to her betraying another person but it would also prevent an exactly similar betrayal involving two other people, say because another would-be betrayer would be sufﬁciently shocked at seeing the ﬁrst agent’s betrayal that she would give up her treacherous plans, then these two outcomes should cancel each other out from the moral point of view.
Second-personal address both makes possible and simultaneously makes us aware of a species of practical freedom that lacks any analogue in the theoretical realm. I develop and defend this claim, relating it to Kant’s notion of autonomy of the will. It turns out, I argue, that Fichte’s Point is exactly what is needed to work out properly the central Kantian ideas of the dignity of persons and autonomy of the will. Pufendorf ’s Point A ﬁnal piece of the puzzle that is needed, along with Fichte’s Analysis to establish Fichte’s Point, is an idea that Samuel Pufendorf advanced in the For an illuminating discussion of the way in which, according to Le´vinas, encountering an other “face to face” involves a second-personal demand for respect, see Putnam 2002.
Call this Fichte’s Analysis of second-personal address. I defend Fichte’s Analysis and follow Fichte further in arguing that Fichte’s Analysis supports Fichte’s Point, namely, that any second-personal claim or “summons” (Aufforderung) presupposes a common competence, authority, and, therefore, responsibility as free and rational, a mutual second-personality that addresser and addressee share and that is appropriately recognized reciprocally (Fichte 2000). The terms of second-personal address commit both parties to seeing each other as, in Rawls’s famous formulation, “selforiginating source[s] of valid claims” (1980: 546).