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By Parimal Patil

Philosophical arguments for and opposed to the lifestyles of God were the most important to Euro-American and South Asian philosophers for over a millennium. severe to the background of philosophy in India, have been the centuries-long arguments among Buddhist and Hindu philosophers in regards to the life of a God-like being referred to as Isvara and the spiritual epistemology used to aid them. via concentrating on the paintings of Ratnakirti, one of many final nice Buddhist philosophers of India, and his arguments opposed to his Hindu rivals, Parimal G. Patil illuminates South Asian highbrow practices and the character of philosophy in the course of the ultimate section of Buddhism in India.

Based on the well-known college of Vikramasila, Ratnakirti introduced the complete diversity of Buddhist philosophical assets to undergo on his critique of his Hindu rivals' cosmological/design argument. At stake in his critique used to be not anything below the character of inferential reasoning, the metaphysics of epistemology, and the relevance of philosophy to the perform of faith. In constructing a formal comparative method of the philosophy of faith, Patil transcends the disciplinary obstacles of non secular reports, philosophy, and South Asian experiences and applies the amazing paintings of philosophers like Ratnakirti to modern concerns in philosophy and faith.

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There is, of course, a great deal of Religious Epistemology in Classical India 35 terms—and more accurately, according to their interpretation of these terms—makes it possible to discover the technical philosophical issues on which its success depends and on which Ratnakirti’s critique is based. Attention to Ratnakirti’s presentation of the Nyaya argument within this broader epistemological context also gives us insight into what is implicitly at stake in his debate with the Naiyayikas. As I will argue, this has to do with the value of epistemology, and especially the value of justification.

Unfortunately, it is beyond the scope of this chapter to fully defend my interpretation of Nyaya epistemology, which would require a systematic analysis of the Nyaya-sutra (NS) corpus at least up to and including Udayana (ca. eleventh century) and the work of Bhasarvajña (ca. 860– 920). The KTBh is an introductory text, or “handbook,” of Nyaya philosophy. It was composed in the latter half of the thirteenth century, but reflects the viewpoint of an earlier period of Nyaya thought. It represents a point of view that is not, for example, overly influenced by the “new school” of Nyaya.

In some cases, this requires bringing together arguments from texts that are topically distant from each other, and selecting and highlighting only some of Ratnakirti’s arguments while ignoring others. For example, while Ratnakirti’s remarks on “inference-warranting relations” are directly related by him to his critique of the Naiyayikas’ argument, his remarks on “exclusion” and “mental content” are discussed more fully in other contexts and are, at best, only indirectly applied by him to this problem.

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