Semantics

Download Linguistic Categorization: Proceedings of an International by Roberta Corrigan, Fred Eckman, Michael Noonan PDF

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By Roberta Corrigan, Fred Eckman, Michael Noonan

This quantity encompasses a choice of the papers awarded on the sixteenth foreign Symposium on the collage of Wisconsin/Milwaukee. vital query have been addressed: what's the nature of the kinds that underlie the constitution of human language? what's the nature of extralinguistic different types which are mirrored in language? those questions are addressed from the viewpoint of numerous disciplines, utilizing many alternative methodologies and targeting many alternative points of language together with morphology, syntax, semantics, phonology and discourse. the amount is split into three sections: prototype results in language, categorization methods, and cross-linguistic categorization.

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Download Construing Experience Through Meaning: A Language-Based by M. A. K. Halliday, Christian M. I. M. Matthiessen PDF

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By M. A. K. Halliday, Christian M. I. M. Matthiessen

This article explores how humans construe adventure. this suggests event as a source, as a possible for figuring out, representing and performing on truth. it truly is by way of this power that the details of everyday life are interpreted: they make feel simply because they're instantiations of this capability. the development of expertise is mostly regarded as wisdom, having the shape of conceptual taxonomies, schemata, scripts etc. The authors supply an interpretation that's complementary to this, treating event now not as figuring out yet as that means; and for that reason as anything that's construed in language. In different phrases, the fear is with the construal of human event as a semantic procedure; and because language performs the relevant function not just in storing and replacing event but in addition in construing it, language is taken because the interpretative base. the focal point of the booklet is either theoretical and descriptive. the key descriptive part is an account of the main basic positive factors of the ideational semantics of English, that is then exemplified in normal textual content kinds (recipes and climate forecasts).

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Download Discourse and Social Change by Norman Fairclough PDF

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By Norman Fairclough

Now on hand in paperback, this ebook is a serious creation to discourse research because it is practised in a number of diversified disciplines this day, from linguistics and sociolinguistics to sociology and cultural stories. the writer indicates how predicament with the research of discourse might be mixed, in a scientific and fruitful method, with an curiosity in broader difficulties of social research and social swap.

Fairclough offers a concise and demanding assessment of the tools and result of discourse research, discussing the descriptive paintings of linguists and dialog analysts in addition to the extra traditionally and theoretically orientated paintings of Michel Foucault. He develops an unique framework for discourse research which firmly situates discourse in a broader context of social relatives bringing jointly textual content research, the research of strategies of textual content construction and interpretation, and the social research of discourse occasions.

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Download Reasoning about Preference Dynamics by Fenrong Liu PDF

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By Fenrong Liu

Our personal tastes ensure how we act and imagine, yet precisely what the mechanics are and the way they paintings is a vital explanation for crisis in lots of disciplines. This publication makes use of thoughts from glossy logics of knowledge circulation and motion to improve a unified new conception of what choice is and the way it adjustments. the speculation emphasizes purposes for choice, in addition to its entanglement with our ideals. in addition, the booklet offers dynamic logical platforms which describe the categorical triggers using choice switch, together with new info, feedback, and instructions. In sum, the ebook creates new bridges among many fields, from philosophy and desktop technological know-how to economics, linguistics, and psychology. For the skilled pupil entry to a wide physique of contemporary literature is equipped and the amateur will get a radical advent to the motion and methods of dynamic logic.

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Download Exemplarist moral theory by Linda Zagzebski PDF

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By Linda Zagzebski

During this ebook Linda Zagzebski offers an unique ethical concept in line with direct connection with exemplars of goodness, modeled at the Putnam-Kripke idea which revolutionized semantics within the seventies. In Exemplarist ethical Theory, exemplars are pointed out during the emotion of admiration, which Zagzebski argues is either a motivating emotion and an emotion whose cognitive content material allows the mapping of the ethical area round the positive factors of exemplars. utilizing examples of heroes, saints, and sages, Zagzebski exhibits how narratives of exemplars and empirical paintings at the such a lot admirable people should be included into the idea for either the theoretical function of producing a complete thought, and the sensible function of ethical schooling and self-improvement. All easy ethical phrases, together with "good person," "virtue," "good life," "right act," and "wrong act" are outlined through the explanations, ends, acts, or judgments of exemplars, or folks like that. the idea additionally generates an account of ethical studying via emulation of exemplars, and Zagzebski defends a precept of the department of ethical linguistic exertions, which provides yes teams of individuals in a linguistic group designated capabilities in making a choice on the extension or ethical phrases, spreading the stereotype linked to the time period throughout the neighborhood, or offering the reasoning assisting judgments utilizing these phrases. the idea is hence semantically externalist in that the which means of ethical phrases will depend on positive aspects of the area open air the brain of the consumer, together with positive aspects of exemplars and contours of the social linguistic community linking clients of the phrases to exemplars. The e-book ends with feedback approximately types of the idea which are sorts of ethical realism, together with a model that helps the lifestyles of important a posteriori truths in ethics.

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Download Numerous Meanings, Volume 15: The Meaning of English by BULTINCK PDF

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By BULTINCK

Outlandish because it could appear to the uninitiated, the that means of English cardinal numbers has been the article of many heated and engaging debates. although the various vital objections which were formulated within the final 3 a long time, the (neo-)Gricean, scalar account continues to be the normal semantic description of numerals. during this booklet, Bultinck writes the historical past of this implicature-driven method and demonstrates that it suffers from methodological lack of confidence and postulates hugely non-conventional meanings of numerals as their "literal meaning," whereas it confuses the extent of lexical semantics with that of utterances and can't take care of various counter-examples. counting on the result of an intensive corpus-based research, an alternate account of the which means of English cardinals and the ways that their interpretation is prompted by means of different linguistic parts is gifted. As such, this research constitutes a prism that provides todays linguist an iridescent background of 1 of the main interesting, if usually misconstrued, subject matters in modern that means learn: the conversational implicatures.

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Download Constraints on numerical expressions by Chris Cummins PDF

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By Chris Cummins

This ebook considers how expressions regarding quantity are utilized by audio system and understood by way of hearers. A speaker's selection of expression could be a complicated challenge even in particularly simple-looking domain names. relating to numerical expressions, there are frequently many decisions that might be semantically applicable: for example, if 'more than 2 hundred' is correct, then so is 'more than 199', 'more than 150', and 'more than 100', between others. A speaker doesn't choose from those techniques arbitrarily but in addition doesn't always stick to any basic rule. The hearer is not only in what has been stated but additionally in any longer inferences that may be drawn.

Chris Cummins deals a suite of standards that separately effect the speaker's collection of expression. the method of selecting what to claim is then handled as an issue of a number of constraint pride. This strategy allows a number of diversified issues, drawn from ideas of semantics, philosophy, psycholinguistics and the psychology of quantity, at the same time to be built-in inside of a unmarried coherent account. This constraint-based version bargains novel predictions approximately utilization and interpretation which are borne out experimentally and in corpus examine. It additionally explains frustrating info in numerical quantification that experience formerly been dealt with by means of extra stipulative potential, and gives a possible line of assault for addressing the matter of the speaker's selection in additional common linguistic environments.

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Download Action Semantics by Peter D. Mosses PDF

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By Peter D. Mosses

Motion Semantics is a singular method of the formal description of programming languages. Its abstractness is at an intermediate point, among that of denotational and operational semantics. motion Semantics has significant pragmatic merits over all prior methods, in its comprehensibility and accessibility, and particularly within the usefulness of its semantic descriptions of lifelike programming languages. during this quantity, Dr Peter Mosses offers an intensive creation to motion semantics, and offers significant illustrations of its use. Graduates of desktop technological know-how or maths who've an curiosity within the semantics of programming languages will locate motion Semantics a so much necessary publication.

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